This unit was attached to the 19th Combat Engineer Group, came to Korea on October 7, 1950, worked its way north to Hungnam area, was evacuated from there to Pusan, and began to work its way north again, building roads and airfields.
Our largest project was to build the K-52 airfield near Yanggu, North Korea, beginning September 26, 1951. This was unfortunate because it left the winter time with its frozen ground in which to make the large cuts and fills. The following seven months were spent with the entire company on the Yanggu airfield. This was a 6500 foot airfield, 250 feet wide. It had two warm-up aprons, 450x300 feet, a taxi-way 120 feet wide, 5000 feet long, and two adjacent parking aprons, one 300 feet by 850 feet and the other 500 feet by 700 feet. It was designed for 40,000 pound wheel-loads, but actually was built much stronger as a safety measure due to the fact that most sub-grade and base courses were of necessity placed and stabilized during the winter time. Unfortunately, the most satisfactory location available was one that spanned rice paddies and hills. Consequently, it was necessary to make cuts as deep as 30 feet for thousands of feet and hundreds of feet wide and to follow these with fills as deep as 16 feet for thousands of more feet. The completed job required the movement of two and a half million yards, the construction of 3,374 feet of culvert with a cross section area as large as 64 square feet, the destruction of a rock hill containing about 100,000 cubic yards, and the crushing of about 40,000 cubic yards of rock. Most of this work was done under the worst weather conditions. The field was completed July 28, 1952, except for the spreading of about 10,000 cubic yards of the crushed rock surfacing material. This was the largest airfield completed in North Korea at that time. In July 1954, this airfield was turned over to the Republic of Korea army.
The 630th Engineers built 22 airfields, ranging in length of 1200 feet to 6500 feet, K-52. The 1200 foot was built overnight at Chungju, January 3, 1951 for the use of 10th Corps liaison planes, the Stinson L-17 sometimes called the "Grasshopper."
Personnel associated with Graves Registration in Korea had the job to collect, evacuate, identify, and bury deceased personnel. Much of the information found on this page was contributed to The Korean War Educator by Graves Registration veteran Lynn Hahn of Whitehall, Michigan.
Instruction for Trainees, Quartermaster Replacement Training Center, Ft. Lee, VA
[Submitted to the Korean War Educator by Lynn Hahn, Whitehall, MI.]
You are about to start eight weeks of basic training at the Quartermaster Replacement Training Center, Fort Lee, Virginia. During this training, you must bear in mind that our present Army represents the finest cross section of American Youth that can be brought together. They come from many walks of life. Their standards of education, of ability, of honor, of ambition, are representative of American citizens. They bring with them their likes and dislikes, their strengths and weaknesses, and collectively they represent the opinions, the strength and weaknesses of our Country. The soldier of today is the best fighting man this Nation has ever produced, with more spirit, more determination, and more ability than his predecessors.
The Quartermaster Replacement Training Center will train you so that you can uphold the tradition of being the best fighting soldier in the world. However, your cooperation is needed in order for us to accomplish and attain this goal. Listed below are some of the things that you must know after the completion of your training. Check this list constantly during your training, so it will serve as your guide in doing your part to maintain the tradition that the American soldier is the best trained soldier in the world.
Graves Registration Specialist Duties and Qualifications
[Contributed to the KWE by Lynn Hahn, Whitehall, MI.]
Graves Registration Specialist
Qualification for MOS 4980
Handout (to be issued in class)
Graves Registration Specialist
Summary: Collects, evacuates, identifies, and buries deceased personnel subject to military jurisdiction, collects and disposes of personal effects found on the deceased, and supervises work details engaged in these tasks.
Duties: Collects, evacuates, and identifies the dead. Searches battlefields for unburied or unsuitably buried dead and for isolated and unmarked graves. Covers the dead with raincoats or shelter halves and carries them to forward area collecting points. Wraps bodies in blankets or other protective covering and places them in ambulance or other vehicle for removal to rear area collecting points or to an established cemetery. Searches dead, removes personal effects, and records inventory on appropriate form. Forwards property and inventory on appropriate form. Forwards property and inventory forms to collecting point or other specified place. Prepares identification form for each body showing name, service number, grade, organization, and place, cause and date of death. Attaches one copy and forwards other copy to collecting point or other designated place. Supervises work detail engaged in foregoing tasks. In the absence of conclusive evidence of identity, takes fingerprints, or prepares tooth chart and ascertains other anatomical characteristics. Operates fluoroscope to check skeleton structure for deformities, old fractures, and other peculiar and signified bone formations. Records accurate physical description on prescribed form, giving all anatomical characteristics, including scars, birthmarks, tattoo marks, and moles, which might be of aid in identification. Informs non-graves registration personnel concerning preparation and disposition of graves registration records. Maintains liaison between combat units and graves registration platoon and company headquarters. Contact officers and enlisted personnel of units operating in areas where unidentified bodies were found to obtain all available information which might be of aid in identification.
Buries the dead. Supervises work details engaged in burial of the dead in an established cemetery. Oversees digging of graves, burial of bodies, and placing of appropriate marker at head of each grave. Supervises and participates in burial of dead where found when circumstances prevent immediate burial in an established cemetery. Ascertain that all personal effects have been removed from bodies. Oversees and assists in digging graves and wrapping and burial of bodies. Attaches one of individual’s identification tags to body and places other on marker at head of grave. Prepares report showing exact location of grave and identity of body or bodies buried therein. Arranges for conduct of religious service and rendering of military honors. In the absence of chaplain, conducts burial service. Indicates location of each temporary grave on map, or on sketch prepared for the purpose. Accurately orients grave on map, or on sketch prepared for the purpose. Accurately orients sketch by showing reference points or by sketching in or describing prominent terrain features such as hills, ravines, streams, and roads. Submits report and map or sketch to immediate superior or to other designated agency.
Qualifications: Must be able to perform duties described above and possess the following special qualifications:
Must be able to read military and topographical maps, photomaps, and military and conventional signs and symbols. Must be able to prepare topographical sketches and map overlays. Must be able to conduct burial services in a solemn and reverent manner. Must be familiar with available disinfectants and fumigation and their use in preventing infection and spread of contagious disease. Must be familiar with military honors rendered at the grave and with other military funeral procedures. Must be familiar with methods used in established cemeteries to make the graves of both known and unknown dead, and with method used to record location of individual graves.
Examples of Duty Position for Which Qualified:
After the corporal come sergeants, and there are quite a few in a graves registration company.
Weekly Schedule, Graves Registration Course No. 10, 12-17 May 1952, 3rd Week
[Contributed to the KWE by Lynn Hahn, Whitehall, MI.]
The Quartermaster School
Each listed in the following order: Hours, place, instructor; Subject & Study Assignment; PI No. & Type of Instruction
Monday, 12 May 1952
0700-0850, Class Leader will supervise movement of students to 1821, MSgt. Cramer. Radiological Warfare, Defensive Measures & Employment, Required: Adv Sheet 149.500A; GR-2D-7, C, D, Restricted
0910-1100 & 1200-1350, 1689LR, MSgt. Roe. Personal Effects. Required: Chapter 6, ST 10-63-1, Bring to class: Notebook & pencil; GR-2E-3, C, D, PE, Restricted
1400-1450, 1689LR, Pfc. Gorton. Map & Aerial Photo Reading; Military Sketching. Bring to class: Pencil & paper; GR-2B-14, C, Restricted
1510-1600, Co Area, Sgt. Seay. Physical Conditioning – PT. Required: FM 21-20, par 49; all 12 exercises plus Paratroop Shuffle
Tuesday, 13 May 1952
0700-0850, 1689LR, Sfc. Blaton & Pfc. Fee. Map & Aerial Photo Reading; Military Sketching. Review all previous study assignments. Bring to class: all map reading equipment. GR-2B-15, E, Restricted.
0910-1000, 1689LR, Sfc. Blaton & Pfc. Fee. Map & Aerial Photo Reading; Military Sketching. Required: FM 21-36, pages 1-5. Bring to class: All map reading equipment. GR-2B-16, L, Restricted.
1010-1100 & 1200-1450, 1689LR, SFC Blanton & Pfc. Fee. Map & Aerial Photo Reading; Military Sketching. Required: FM 21-35, pages 6-14. Bring to class: All map reading equipment. GR-2B-17, C, D, PE, Restricted.
1510-1600, Co Area, Sgt. Seay. Physical Conditioning – PT. Required: FM 21-20, par 49; all 12 exercises plus Paratroop Shuffle.
Wednesday, 14 May 1952
0700-0750, 1689LR, Sfc. Ralston. Personal Effects. Required: Par 66, ST-10-63-1. Bring to class: ST 10-63-1, Notebook & pencil. GR-2E-4, C, PE, Restricted.
0800-1000, 1689LR, Sfc. Parks. Personal Effects. Recommended: Pars 64b-d, ST 10-63-1; par 65g-h, ST 10-63-1. Bring to class: Notebook & pencil. GR-2E-5, C, PE, Restricted.
1010-1100 & 1200-1250, 1689LR, Sfc. Blanton & Pfc Fee. Map & Aerial Photo Reading: Military Sketching. Review all previous assignments. Bring to class: All map reading equipment. GR-2B-18, C, PE, Restricted.
1300-1350, 1689LR, MSgt. Roe. Iden of the Dead. Bring to class: Notebook & pencil. GR-2F-1, C, L, Restricted.
1400-1450, Co Area, Sgt. Seay. Physical Conditioning – PT. Required: FM 21-20, par 49; all 12 exercises plus Paratroop Shuffle.
1500-1550, Theater #5, Sgt. McKasson. Command Conference.
Thursday, 15 May 1952
0700-0850, 1689LR, Sfc. Blanton & Pfc. Fee. Map & Aerial Photo Reading; Military Sketching. Review all previous assignments. Bring to class: All map reading equipment. GR-2B-19, C, PE, Restricted.
0910-1100 & 1200-1450, 1689LR, Cpl. McMaster. Iden of the Dead. Required: ST 10-63-1, Fig 34A & B, Fig 35; App II. QM 16-2, pages 50-59 incl. Bring to class: Notebook & pencil. GR-2F-2, C, PE, Restricted.
1510-1600, Co Area, Sgt. Seay. Physical Conditioning – PT. Required: FM 21-20, par 49; all 12 exercises plus Paratroop Shuffle.
Friday, 16 May 1952
0700-1100 & 1200-1350, 1689LR, Sfc. Blanton & Pfc. Fee. Map & Aerial Photo Reading; Military Sketching. Review all previous study assignments. Bring to class: All map reading equipment. GR-2B-20, PE, E, Restricted.
1410-1500, Co Area, Sgt. Seay. Physical Conditioning – PT; Required: FM 21-20, par 49; all 12 exercises plus Paratroop Shuffle.
Saturday, 17 May 1952
0700-0850, 1689LR, Sfc. Parks. Battlefield Collection & Evacuation. Recommended: Pars 35-39, ST 10-63-1. Bring to class: Notebook & pencil. GR-2G-1, L, C, Restricted.
0910-1000, 1689LR, Sfc. Ralston. Personal Effects. Required: Pars 64 h, I, & j, ST 10-63-1. Bring to class: ST 10-63-1; notebook & pencil. GR-2E-6, C, D, Restricted.
1010-1100, 1689LR, Sfc. Ralston. Personal Effects. Required: Par 68, ST 10-63-1. Recommended: Par 23, QM Serv T/0 (120.20T). Bring to class: ST 10-63-1, QM Serv T/0 (120.20T), notebook & pencil. GR-2E-7, C, Restricted.
Loudspeaker & Leaflet
Written by Paul A. Wolfgeher, Independence, Missouri
Less than 24 hours after President Truman ordered American troops to Korea, leaflets were being dropped informing South Koreans of the decision of the United States and the United Nations. In less than another 24 hours, radio broadcasts were beamed towards South Korea. Theoretically, the first defense in Korea was psychological warfare.
Truth has been and still is one of the most effective weapons that man has found, and Psywar makes use of the truth as its principal weapon to fight the enemy and reduce his will to fight. At first, Psywar in the Far East consisted of a six-man planning group in Toyko, Japan. During the first 125 days of the Korean War, over 100 million leaflets were dropped or fired in artillery shells by our forces.
The Korean War brought Psywar to the forefront. The infantry has the mission of meeting and destroying the enemy. The artillery is dedicated to supporting the infantry by fire. And the mission of Psywar is to support the infantry by reducing enemy combat efficiency. Psywar seeks to change enemy attitude and opinion by means of the spoken or written word. The weapon is truth and it is one of the oldest, most effective weapons upon which man has stumbled. The broad mission of Psywar is to hurt the enemy and depress the morale of the enemy by spreading the "true" battle picture and of the U.N. aims of peace, unification, and reconstruction. The only operational Psywar unit in the Army was at Fort Riley, Kansas. This unit was sent to Korea as the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company. The 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company arrived in South Korea on November 4th, 1950, and served until February 21, 1955. (Another psywar unit—the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Company--arrived in Japan in the summer of 1951.)
The 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company in Korea earned credit for participating in eight campaigns during the Korean War and was awarded two meritorious unit commendations and a Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation (ROKPUC). The 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company served as the Army’s Tactical Psychological Warfare unit until the end of the Korean War. This unit was the first of its kind to serve in a combat zone, with loudspeakers on vehicles and aircraft, and which also disseminated propaganda from the aircraft. Some of the leaflets promised medical treatment for frostbite, undermined faith in their officers, and similarly instilled fear for soldiers’ safety. Another theme told of the mounting enemy dead.
A leaflet drop is worthwhile if it causes significant decline in the combat efficiency of the enemy. One big instance of this was Operation Moolah. This was a Psywar effort to entice Communist pilots to fly a Mig 15 fighter to an allied airfield for a reward of $100,000. Over one million leaflets were dropped near the Yalu River on April 26, and another one half million were dropped near Sinuiju and Uiju airfields near the Yalu border on May 10 and May 18. The Migs had been elusive in 1953, and it was difficult to get them to come up and challenge the F-86 Sabre jets of the United States Air Force.
The result of this operation was the grounding of the Mig jets for eight days. It could have been the weather, or perhaps the Communists were checking on pilots that might defect. In the 60 days before Moolah, the allies shot down 53 Migs. In the 60 days after Moolah, the allies shot down 107 Migs. In the entire period after Moolah, the allies shot down 165 Migs at a cost of losing only three allied aircraft—a 55 to 1 ratio.
We eventually got a Mig on September 21, 1953. North Korea had just opened the air base repair shop at Pyongyang, and the pilot decided to make the 13-minute flight to freedom. Was this Moolah operation a success? Yes, because it caused a flight to freedom and mass confusion among our enemies and destruction of his aircraft. We dominated the skies afterward and I believe we can call that a success.
Know Your Enemy
Psychological warfare is simply learning everything about your target enemy, their beliefs, likes and dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities. How do you get to know your enemy target? By intelligence reports, area studies, country research, defectors, and visiting prisoners of war.
Psychological warfare is a war of the mind, and your weapons are sight and sound. For your operations to be effective, you must carefully plan your propaganda. Psywar operations are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotion, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of the organizations, groups, and individuals. Used in war, it is a powerful weapon whose effectiveness is limited only by the ingenuity of the commander using it.
The success of Psywar starts with knowing its capabilities. To be successful, Psywar operations must be planned, synchronized, and executed successfully. Failure in one results in failure in the whole plan.
During the Korean War, it was a no no for enemy soldiers to have a leaflet on their person. If found on them, they were shot. Consequently, smaller leaflets were used so that they could be hidden more easily and read at a later date. Some leaflets were printed as money so the enemy soldiers could hide the leaflets between the real money he had. It was normal practice to send the enemy leaflets that he recognized, news that he missed, and things he knew about. One leaflet that exceeded all others in production was the Safe Conduct Pass. It had to be sincere and standardized.
Tactical Psywar was employed for surrender instructions, to discourage and disrupt enemy operations, control civilians, warn of potential bombings of enemy targets, etc. Psywar soldiers used several types of media, audio, visual and print, but during most combat operations, Loudspeaker Systems were used for face-to-face communications. Loudspeaker Teams in Korea consisted of a US soldier, normally a sergeant who was in charge; one Korean soldier who could speak English and Korean; and a Korean soldier who could speak Korean and Chinese.
The Loudspeaker was a major weapon in Korea. Ground loudspeakers were used on the radio-less North Korean front. Loudspeakers were also used from aircraft to stimulate or control enemy movements. The best example of this was a case where a Loudspeaker plane saw a northbound column of Communist trucks that were warned to turn around and head for U.N. lines or they would be shot at by the fighter planes that were circling overhead.
On occasion, the voice and leaflet planes were damaged by Communist Anti-aircraft Artillery, and planes were lost. A good number of ground loudspeakers were destroyed by intense enemy counter fire to halt broadcasts. There was this time we sent a few thousand leaflets up to the front to our loudspeaker team, which was going to use them. But before the team could use them or destroy them, the hill was overrun by the enemy and the leaflets were confiscated by the enemy. A couple of days later the enemy flew over Seoul in their Bed Check Charlie planes and dropped those leaflets on our compound. They knew exactly where we were located. Their intelligence was just as good as ours.
Leaflets are the work-horse of Psywar. After the North Koreans crossed the 38th parallel on June 25, 1950, enough leaflets were used in Korea to provide one for every person on earth. Leaflets were dropped by leaflet bombs and timed fused bundles. They were shot across the lines by leaflet shells, and carried and distributed by infantry patrols.
The standard size of a leaflet used in Korea was 5 ½ x 8 ½. These leaflets could be retained and passed on from person to person without distortion. The leaflet could be hidden and read later in privacy.
A properly developed and designed message can have a deep and lasting effect on the target audience. The heading of the leaflet is the most important part because it is what your eyes see first. It has to be forceful and short, gain the interest of the target audience, and contain actual facts and details. Color on a leaflet should contrast sharply with the predominant color of the terrain over which the leaflet will be used. It has to stand out so that the individual would want to pick it up. Through intelligence you can learn the favorable colors of the target audience.
Pictures on leaflets showing bombed enemy cities are proof to the soldier that their homeland is subject to air raids. During the Korean War, the leaflet themes centered around the happy POW, good soldiers, bad leaders, surrender, you will be treated well, and nostalgia for home, family, and woman.
There are some disadvantages to leaflets. A high illiteracy rate can reduce the effectiveness of the message. They require special extensive and continuing logistic support. The enemy can collect and destroy them or prohibit the possession of them by death.
The leaflet development and design requires trained and knowledgeable personnel. They must know the situation at the moment the leaflet is to be used. Leaflets were developed for standard uses, as special situations, safe conduct passes, and news of what is happening. Only positive appeals can wear down the barrier the enemy has erected against the Psywar writer. The work of a Psy warrior was top notch.
Leaflets from the Air/Bombs
Leaflets dropped by air usually follow the effects of air current and there were drops when the air stream would change and our UN troops would receive them.
The leaflets dropped by leaflet bombs weighed 225 pounds fully loaded with 30,000 5 ½ x 8 ½ fliers. Before the leaflets were placed in the bomb, the fuse was placed in the seam between the two halves. It functioned at a predetermined time, denoting the primer cord, separating the two body sections, detaching the fins and releasing the leaflets.
The Victory of Psywar
There is little likelihood of learning the total effect of Psywar in Korea. Today’s Psy Warriors are soldiers first and radiopersons, printers, or psychologists second. Our unit always considered that if one person surrendered with a leaflet, that was one soldier not shooting at United Nations troops. By the end of the Korean War, 2.5 billion leaflets had been dropped over enemy troops and civilians in North Korea. About one million individual leaflets could be distributed by a single B-29 Superfortress. The reliance of C-47 Transport Aircraft as a way of disseminating leaflets and the use of Voice Planes at the tactical level were uncomplicated by enemy air or anti-craft action.
The most stunning victory for the United Nations was the refusal of 33,000 POWs to return to their homelands, and in contrast only 21 UN military personnel refused repatriation.
In 1957, the term Psychological Warfare was replaced by Psychological Operation, in recognition of the fact that such operations did not require a state of war and they could be directed toward civilians.
Name of publication unknown; Date unknown
Submitted to the Korean War Educator by
Psywar Hits Korean Enemy
With the Eighth Army, Korea -
First the generator. Good, he thought, as it started without difficulty. He checked the dial to insure that there was enough power, then connected the "mike," placed a harmonica to his lips and began the first broadcast of the evening. From a loudspeaker unit, some 300 yards in front of the MLR, came the strains of the soulful harmonica solo, followed with a resume of the current news in flawless Chinese for the news starved Communists. Thus, an obscure bunker on an isolated hill once again became the final link in the PSYWAR chain.
Psychological Warfare (PSYWAR), a weapon as old as history itself, is waged in Korea through the combined efforts of approximately 350 Americans and Koreans. They use propaganda and related measures which are designed to decrease the effectiveness of the enemy in this "hot and cold" war. Standing as the "Heart of PSYWAR" in Korea is the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Co., commanded by Capt. Oliver W. Rodman. The 1st L&L, which arrived in Korea in the early autumn of 1950 as a Tactical Information Detachment, is the first unit of its kind in this or any other theater, and is the only one to serve in combat.
In preparing each new program which will strike at the morale of the Communist forces, the Intelligence Branch of the Eighth Army Psychological Warfare Division first evaluates the psychological vulnerability of the enemy. This information is passed along to the Projects Branch, whose artists and writers design the propaganda leaflets.
After materials are fused in a finished product, translated and approved, they are sent to the 1st L&L Co., where the leaflets are reproduced. Meanwhile, speaker teams are writing scripts which will elaborate the theme of the leaflets. When reproduction is completed, Capt. Rodman calls in the section leaders, who will conduct the operation, and explains the objective of the program. The section leaders return to their headquarters and brief the team chiefs who have written scripts for the coming attack.
On the appointed date, the operation swings into action. Although the Operations Branch of PSYWAR has many ways of disseminating its material, the usual methods are stationary loudspeakers and leaflets dropped from airplanes. In the case of a fluid front, speakers are mounted on tanks, while loudspeakers rigged to airplanes is another method used in Korea. The use of airplanes is ideal in cases where the civilian population is the object of the message. Planes are seldom used against ground forces, because they would be too easy to shoot down.
The use of artillery shells permits the section leaders to pinpoint a target, while leaflets dropped from airplanes cover a general area.
As the hour of the proposed operation approaches, the team chiefs move out to their respective units and brief their men on the night's program. In a team there are usually two other members, one who broadcasts and one who can interpret English, Chinese and Korean.
At advanced airbases, planes are loaded with leaflets that will be dropped to coincide with the broadcasts. If necessary, artillery pieces will send shells into enemy territory with the same message. The success of the campaign now depends on the intellectual and emotional make-up of the enemy. Will the ancient folk tunes of his country cause him to stop and think about his home? Can the leaflets make him believe that he is the pawn of a foreign government?
Reports from Communist prisoners indicate they listen to broadcasts and read the leaflets even though they are subject to punishment for doing so.
(Click a small picture for a larger view)
728th Military Police
According to this history, the 728th was initially activated January 19, 1942 at Fort Custer, Michigan. Originally used to train troops for combat duty and maintain "alert status" for protection of war production industries in Detroit, Michigan, the 728th remained on US soil until August 1950. The battalion was then alerted for overseas movement to Yokohama, Japan. Following the North Korean invasion of the South, the 728th was transferred and reassembled in Pusan, South Korea. Its new mission during the Korean War was operation and control of traffic on the Green Diamond Main Supply Route. For the next eight months, many members of the unit took an active part in combat operations in surpassing guerilla activities and responding to ever changing tactical situations.
The battalion made a number of moves during its 30 year history in the Republic of Korea, including Pyongyang, Seoul, Taejon, Yongju, Wonju, Chipyoungni, Hongchon, and Chunchon. The photograph of MPs Fuller, Thompson, Parido, Mays, Jacobson, Goldberg and Gilbreath (far right) was taken at a place called "The Rock Pile."After the Inchon invasion, the battalion headquarters was moved to Inchon and later, as security increased, found its way to Seoul. In 1951, the battalion assisted in traffic control and various other law enforcement duties. After the truce was signed, the 728th mission was to provide military police support to installations around the Republic of Korea and, when necessary, keeping peace on the peninsula. One of the more well-known missions of the 728th was rendering assistance in the return of the crewman of the USS Pueblo who had been captured and incarcerated by the North Koreans. Members of the battalion were present at Panmunjom to accept release and provide security. In 1984, the 728th was incorporated into the 8th Military Police provisional brigade at Seoul. These three 728th Military Police Battalion photographs are shown courtesy of Don Parido of Illinois. He is standing next to the jeep in the first photo on the left.